Getting Started with Real Estate Photography - Exteriors (2023)

One excellent way for a photographer to get established in the local market is to consider adding real estate work to the portfolio. While real estate photography can certainly encompass large commercial and resort-scale projects, here we’re going to focus on the more common kind of residential MLS (Multiple Listing Service) imagery we’re all used to seeing in the grocery store entrance.

MLS Photography is not fine art photography, it is a practical service provided to homeowners and listing agents that, when done well can have a positive impact in our client’s bottom line and provide a solid revenue stream to an established or aspiring photographer’s workflow.

Today we’ll focus primarily on exteriors and make our way to interior shooting in the next post. Let’s dive in and explore a few basic tips, tools and techniques to producing a quality virtual tour that our clients can display and market with pride, starting with a few basic gear suggestions.


Camera & Lens: My standard MLS shooting kit consists of a Canon T3i (600D) body mounted with a Sigma 10-20mm f/3.5 EX wide-angle lens, packed alongside a Sigma 24-70 f/2.8 EX and circular polarizing filters for each. On a typical shoot, the 10-20 will do the heavy lifting and the 24-70 is used primarily for details and features in need of a tighter focal length, such as custom casework, gardens, water features and any unique fixtures. It’s a good idea, if possible, to bring along a GoPro and monopod for any properties showcasing water features with aquatic life. Including these unexpected details are a welcome addition to any tour that clients appreciate.

A wide-angle field of view is ideal if not mandatory for real estate work. The Sigma 10-20mm (17-35mm full-frame equivalent) is wide enough to get a full exterior view in close quarters if needed, and more than able to grab both opposing corners in most interior spaces with minimal distortion. If you’re searching for the ideal lens, a minimum focal plane of 24mm is recommended for best results.

Exposure Settings: Starting at f/10 in full-sun, I prefer work my way up or down a stop or two, depending on available light to maintain a deep depth-of-field across the site. In overcast light, f/8 is a good place to start. I find shooting in Aperture Priority (Av) mode with Auto ISO is ideal for keeping time at a minimum, especially if the owner or agent is on-site.

For standard site elevation shots, a sharp image with deep depth of field is preferred. Very rarely do shallow, artistic depths-of-field occur in MLS work. In other words, fine-art photographers: avoid getting bogged down in shallow shots of fixtures and appliances. Here our creativity will shine most in attention to framing, and being able to convey a flattering sense of space, dimension and overall aesthetic. Not so much an issue when shooting the outside, but inside it’s all about getting the space, making it look as awesome as possible and rolling to the next shot.

Lighting: Flash fill is a necessity in MLS work. When shooting DSLR, I find the Canon 430EXII Speedlight coupled with a Gary Fong Lightsphere an ideal solution for on-and-off camera fill. The Canon 430 is tall enough to get over both the 10-20 and 24-70 lens hoods without casting a shadow and is an ideal application for a balanced E-TTL result. Nothing fancy here – just good, even lighting to accent color and show the space clearly to a prospective buyer.

Fixed-lens and mid-level DSLR: pop-up flash will aid significantly in recovering color and contrast when shooting in full sun. If you feel like you’re not getting enough pop, many cameras offer a Flash Compensation feature in the camera settings menu, allowing the user a few stops of (+/-) control over output flash power. While you’re there, (if available) experiment with the 2nd Curtain firing option, which causes the flash to throw a little light into the scene up front to help initially expose the image, with another pop as the shutter closes. Not a necessity outside, but a reliable way to go when heading into the more light-challenged Interiors portion of the shoot.

Off-camera: I keep a pair of inexpensive but very capable Yongnuo Digital YN-622C E-TTL (Canon) wireless triggers on hand, along with a lightweight stand and two umbrellas, one shoot-thru and one reflective. But my usual go-to combination is a monopod-mounted trigger and flash extended by hand, propped in a stable place or hidden out of view somewhere in the scene (if required).

Unless otherwise agreed upon, these are not commonly budgeted tools for conventional MLS work. That said, having these tools around can definitely put us in the best position to get the shot, exceed client expectations and help secure future work.

Recommended: for any shooters in search of an exceptional camera for real estate work, you might consider taking a look at the Sony RX10 stabilized 24-200mm (f/2.8) fixed-lens system powered by an oversized 20.2MP Exmor-R CMOS sensor.

Getting Started with Real Estate Photography - Exteriors (1)

Not only will this all-in-one option sufficiently cover the necessary focal lengths, the new RX10 offers full 1080p video at 60fps and includes both pop-up and multi-interface hot shoe for off-camera E-TTL flash connectivity. Having spent a lot of time shooting properties with this camera’s 10.3 mega-pixel predecessor (DSC-R1), this is one serious upgrade to a proven workhorse in the field. I’m looking forward to getting my hands on the RX10 via and putting it through the standard tour paces.

Tripod/Monopod: Okay, this one should be first on the list. Without stabilizing the camera, an upscale virtual tour is relegated to a pile of mediocre snapshots. A reliable light to mid-weight tripod or monopod is the single best immediate investment we can make in regard to image quality, regardless of the camera we use.

Naturally, the more stable the shot, the sharper the image. Another equally important reason to use a tripod for real estate work is, having successfully framed and established the settings for our first shot, we’re now able to quickly move this setup from position to position, adding a consistent look and flow to our image tour. Attention to this single detail alone can make a property stand out and distinctively set your work apart from the competition.

One of the keys to efficient MLS tour photography is to quickly get the camera, flash and tripod (or monopod) height dialed-in so we’re free to start moving and shooting with minimal adjustment. Having located a good starting point, framing is now our primary concern.

Scheduling a Time

While photographers are downright picky about light in general, MLS work (in my opinion) offers a much wider shooting range in regard to time of day. Morning and afternoon light have appealing angles and tones, but can also be low enough to blow our sky out when shooting in that direction.

I personally find it safest to schedule MLS work when the sun is positioned just high enough to leave the background, leaving the sky a more consistent (albeit sometimes washed-out) blue for ground-level shooting at all angles. While not always convenient, this approach tends to produce the most consistent background that requires the least amount of work to recover in post.

Certain properties will budget a higher degree of attention to these details, depending on the size and scope of the project, and will call for a more involved lighting or HDR processing scenario, such as a twilight or golden-hour view from both inside and outside a residence or business. If I may reiterate, typical MLS photography is not fine art photography; yet a good photographer or listing agent can make a maximum impact in the display and sale of a given property with relative ease by applying even the most basic of composition and processing skills.

Approaching the Site

On our first MLS tour projects, it’s quite easy to overlook the initial shots we need as we nervously drive right past them on the way in. Every tour needs a good neighborhood entrance shot or two (or more, depending) to anchor the flow, especially with newer developments ordained with attractive signage and landscaping.

Getting Started with Real Estate Photography - Exteriors (2)

As an avid landscape shooter, I’m somewhat notorious for over-shooting these areas. The more emphasis developers place on creating this kind of appeal, the more effort I tend to place in capturing their aesthetic. Here are a few things to look for when approaching a site:

  • Formal signage, custom landscaping and garden works
  • Community recreation facilities (swimming pools, golf courses, tennis courts, clubhouses etc.)
  • Appealing views of (and along) the entrance drive
  • Neighborhood trails and greenways

I find it’s a good idea to arrive a bit early and hit these features on the way in for two reasons: a) sheer convenience, and b) because the client always values and appreciates this kind of professional foresight and initiative. If our goal is to exceed expectations, this is one simple and effective way to make a professional impression and establish a healthy confidence and trust in our service(s).

Shooting Exterior Elevations

Getting Started with Real Estate Photography - Exteriors (3)

Moving on to the site itself, it’s time to kick into high gear. Let’s take a look at a few things to keep in mind:

On approaching the property driveway, be sure to park out of view. Ideally, no vehicles should be parked in the drive or in front the home. A good listing agent will have the owner prepped for these concerns. When asked, owners are usually more than accommodating and gladly willing to move any cars into the garage or temporarily out of view for the best result.

Scan the layout and note any extreme grading or sloping present around the property. For instance: if the front yard is steep, a good approach would be to back away, shoot more from a distance and zoom in to frame the shot, thereby leveling the scene a bit. Good MLS photography is all about the center-line, especially the vertical plane. Anything that can be done to avoid looking up at our subject is ideal, and occasionally impossible to reconcile without budgeting specialty gear.

Work the perimeter, covering all available angles. Starting with the front, move to the left-front corner, then to the left side, then to the left-rear corner, then to the rear and so on; making sure to grab two or three exposures of each angle, moving forward or backward as required for the most flattering view. While many of these images will not be among our final selections, having them guarantees the best selection for a quality tour.

Remember the vertical plane: Be sure to play around with camera heights keeping in mind that the taller the subject, the higher we need our lens to minimize distortion. I prefer to use a minimum 6′ monopod for speed and mobility when combing the perimeter, taking full advantage of the camera’s tilting LCD display to frame and shoot. Whether an inch or three feet, being ready to reposition as high or low as required to level a scene (to the extent that we’re able) will reward our images with a distinctly cleaner look, and especially so for interior work. More on that later.

Showcasing Exterior Features

Getting Started with Real Estate Photography - Exteriors (4)

Having successfully worked the perimeter and acquired our elevation views, we can now turn our attention to exterior detail work before heading inside. Here are a few keys to highlight along the way:

Garage and Outbuildings: While attached garages are generally covered in the perimeter walk-around, a couple of closer shots of the driveway and garage door(s) help anchor the tour and provide a good transition toward the property. I prefer to shoot one straight-on and one angled, selecting the best of the two in post. Likewise for carports, sheds and other outbuildings.

Landscaping: Any and all custom landscaping, including pools, play areas, water features, solar panels and garden works (etc.) should be well-covered from all angles. Creative license is a winner here. Be sure to draw attention to any nicely landscaped beds and walkways leading to property entrances.

Porches & Decking: Making our way back to the main entrance, be sure to capture a closer view of any back or side porches and decking. It’s a good practice to get a few shots from the ground level, then walk onto the porch or deck and shoot it’s general layout along with any attractive views.

I recommend shooting a frame or two straight-on and a couple of angled shots showing the porch connection and rear (or side) entry, highlighting any custom features along the way. Porches and decks can also provide a great vantage point for back or side yard views, an obvious but easily overlooked shot on the first few outings.

Main Entrance: Having covered all side and rear porches, decks and entrances the last stop is the front door. On the way, take note of any walkways connecting the driveway to the home. These shots tend to create a smoother visual transition from the perimeter to the front door.

All that is needed now to complete our exterior session is to shoot the front door itself. A single straight-on shot from medium range (about 15-20 feet out) with the 24-70 is generally the best option. Going wider will work but usually gets us close enough for serious flash reflection issues, especially in the presence of a full-glass storm door. Here, we find ourselves again shooting at an angle to avoid reflection and glare.

To cap the exterior shoot, step onto the front porch or landing, turn around and shoot any front views of the property that stand out. I also like to turn and get a final angled shot toward the driveway, if applicable. We can now confidently kick off the shoes and head inside.

And we’ll pick it up there in the next post.

Final Thoughts

Having worked with realtors of all kinds, I’ve grown to appreciate the hard work successful agents put into their properties. Every good realtor is skilled in engaging the seller, and sparing no small expenditure in preparing a property for a shoot.

In today’s economy, busy agents might have dozens of properties on their hands in different stages of need to be better prepared for market. As that window can open and close quickly, understanding and exceeding these practical shooting needs can earn you a positive reputation, and land you on a fast-track to a wealth of future work.

Please note that the equipment and technique expressed here are my own, and given from my own limited perspective in regard to the field of real estate photography. I look forward to catching you next time with a closer look at Interiors shooting, as well as selecting, processing and publishing a completed tour.

Thanks for stopping by. If you’re planning to attend the Photoshop World conference next week in Las Vegas, be sure to swing by and say hello, or join us for the Reader Breakfast Friday, Sept 5 @ 8am at the Mandalay Bay Hotel.


How do I prepare my photos for an estate agent? ›

Before photographs are taken of your property's exterior, make sure you do the following:
  1. Get those cars off the driveway.
  2. Store any bins out of shot.
  3. Clear the driveway of any debris or mess.
  4. Clean windows and window frames, as well as the front door.
  5. Jet wash the driveway.
  6. Mow the lawn.
6 Oct 2019

What focal length is best for real estate photography? ›

How to choose the right lens for real estate photography.
  • As a general rule for focal length, anything between 12mm and 35mm will provide good photos.
  • If you can, opt for a lens in the 22–24mm range, which provides an even balance of foreground and background in your photos.

What time of day is best for real estate photography? ›

The sun is your best friend when shooting photos for real estate listings. Many real estate photographers will tell you the best time of day to break out the camera and start snapping shots of homes for sale is late morning and early afternoon, when the sun is generally shining brightest.

How do I photograph a property for sale? ›

Ten top tips for better property photographs
  1. Attach your camera to a tripod. ...
  2. Switch on all the house lights. ...
  3. Use lighting equipment. ...
  4. Room preparation. ...
  5. Bubble spirit level. ...
  6. Take your exterior shots in the morning. ...
  7. Watch how the light hits your house. ...
  8. Processing the image.
15 Nov 2014

How many photos should a real estate listing have? ›

As we said, there is no exact number for this. For example, for an average 3 bedroom, 2 bathroom house, perhaps around 1500 to 2000 square feet, would usually need 25-30 photos. This provides a good balance between quality and quantity. If the property is bigger and has more space, more images will be required.

How long do estate agent photos take? ›

Allow up to 2 hours for shooting a 3000sq ft property so you can take 2-3 pictures of each room. You need to leave with around 15-25 usable photos for your initial listings and a possible refresh.

Is 24mm enough for real estate? ›

Is 24mm good for real estate photography? 24mm has been debated as the perfect wide-angle lens for real estate photography, but is it? If you're looking for a great all-around lens, 24mm is probably your best bet. It provides a good amount of space without being too wide and distorting the image.

Is a 35mm lens good for real estate photography? ›

The 16-35mm range is ideal for real estate photography. It's wide enough to capture even a small space in full. The 35mm zoom is ideal if you're in a large space but want a tighter composition.

Is a 50mm lens good for real estate photography? ›

The Right Focal Length For Real Estate Photography Subjects

For general work, from normal-sized property exteriors to decently spacious interior shots, you can probably photograph almost everything at around 24mm, 35mm, 50mm, or maybe 70mm or 85mm if there are distant or detail shots to be had.

What makes good real estate photos? ›

Keep in mind the shutter speed and white balance on your camera should be set correctly to ensure your photos get enough light. In real estate photography, images should have warmth and brightness to attract buyers and renters. Keeping the rooms well-lit will ensure they do not appear too cold or dark.

How do you prepare your house for pictures? ›

Checklist to Prepare Your Home for Real Estate Photos
  1. Clean Kitchen Counters & Sink. ...
  2. Clean Bathroom. ...
  3. Turn On All Lights Throughout the Entire House. ...
  4. Remove Unnecessary Furniture & Decorations. ...
  5. Make All of the Beds. ...
  6. Remove All Personal Photos and Items. ...
  7. Put All Shoes & Jackets in Closets. ...
  8. Remove All Pet Item.
22 Feb 2021

How do you take exterior real estate photos? ›

9 Tips for Shooting Real Estate Exteriors
  1. Make sure the property is ready for the shoot. ...
  2. Think about the position of the sun. ...
  3. Take dusk or early-evening shots. ...
  4. Try another angle. ...
  5. Use a tripod and your camera's timer. ...
  6. Keep the horizon straight and level. ...
  7. Focus on the details.
8 Jun 2016

Is real estate photography hard? ›

Real estate photography is a challenging but fun and potentially lucrative line of work. It can be a great side income, or a full-time career! It might seem simple at first – just take pictures of houses and rooms, and get paid!

What size should Zillow images be? ›

Photo file size must be smaller than 10 MB. Photo dimensions must be at least 330 pixels wide by 220 pixels high – we suggest 1536 pixels wide by 1152 pixels high for best quality.

How many photos can be uploaded to MLS? ›


jpg. You may add up to 150 photos per listing.

How many pictures can be uploaded on MLS? ›

You can upload up to nine photos for a single listing. When saved, TMLS names the first (primary) photo with the MLS# followed by the filename extension ".

Can an estate agent use another agent's photos? ›

While the estate agency may be permitted to use them for marketing purposes, they have no ownership to them. This means that they would need to request permission or copyright transfer should they wish to edit the images or use them for any other purpose.

How long does it take to edit real estate photos? ›

More often than not, real estate photo editing promises fast turnaround times usually 24 to 48 hours depending on the amount of photos taken.

Can you use a 24 70 lens for real estate photography? ›

You don't need a massive collection of lenses for real estate photography. You just need the right ones to get the job done beautifully. A standard 24-70 mm lens to cover the normal focal range should be in your kit. You will often use this lens for exteriors.

Is 20mm wide enough for real estate photography? ›

Real estate photographers find the effective focal lengths roughly between 16mm and 24mm to be the "sweet spot" for shooting interiors . It's best to have a zoom that covers this whole range between 16 and 24 but at a minimum, you need to work at 24mm or below.

What lens do estate agents use? ›

Tamron 15-30mm f/2.8 Di VC USD

Another reason this is a great choice for estate agents is because this lens is specifically designed to perform at a high standard even when the lighting is poor. This is a particularly compelling benefit for shooting interiors as it means darker rooms can still be photographed well.

Do you need a full frame camera for real estate photography? ›

A full-frame camera isn't necessary for taking great real estate photos. While a full-frame sensor can give you better dynamic range, detail and depth of field, you can still achieve professional-looking photos with a crop sensor if you master factors like composition, lighting and retouching.

Is 18 55mm good for real estate photography? ›

The 18-55mm kit lens that usually comes with low-end DSLRs is not wide enough for shooting interiors, but it will be fine for shooting exteriors.

Do you need a wide-angle lens for real estate photography? ›

Usually, in real estate photography, you need the impression that the space you're photographing is more significant than the actual. And that's why a wide-angle lens can be handy, making the place look more prominent.

What filter do real estate photographers use? ›

Polarizing Filter

Polarizers can be used to any photography type, whether you specialize in weddings, landscape, architectural, or real estate. They filter out polarized light which intensely reduce reflections. Polarizers are also used to enhance colors and can even increase contrast.

Do you need a tilt shift lens for real estate photography? ›

When shooting with a regular or wide angle lens, this distortion causes the vertical lines to converge into a pyramid shape. The tilt shift lens corrects for that, and enables you to shoot buildings while keeping the lines completely vertical.

Is 17mm wide enough for real estate? ›

Wide-Angle Lenses are Ideal for Real Estate Interiors

As a result, many real estate photographers opt to shoot in the 22-24mm range (which is about 14-16mm on a crop sensor camera), though anything in the 12-35mm range on a full frame camera will work just fine.

How do photographers use flash in real estate? ›

Like shooting with only ambient lighting, on-camera flash is fairly quick and easy to set up. Bouncing the light from the flash off a ceiling or wall will provide a softer light than a flash pointed straight ahead does and using cheap and easy-to-find flash diffusers can also help.

Do you tip real estate photographers? ›

Do you tip a real estate photographer? Generally, real estate photographers will be hired by an agency to take photos of their home listings. These companies are not going to be tipping, for sure. If you happen to be listing a home yourself, tipping is not a necessity in this industry.

What month is the best to sell a house? ›

Sellers can net thousands of dollars more if they sell during the peak months of May, June, and July versus the two slowest months of the year, October and December, according to a 2022 report by ATTOM Data Solutions.

How do I make my house look good to sell? ›

21 Staging tips for selling your home fast
  1. Boost curb appeal. ...
  2. Welcome visitors with an inviting porch. ...
  3. Get your house sparkling clean. ...
  4. Clear away all clutter. ...
  5. Strike a balance between clean and lived-in. ...
  6. Style your dining room table. ...
  7. Take a good look at your floors. ...
  8. Rearrange your furniture.
6 Feb 2017

Is it better to sell a house empty or staged? ›

Staging makes your home more attractive to potential buyers, which can help it sell faster and for more money. Ninety-five percent of staged homes sell in 11 days or less, which is 87% faster than non-staged homes. They also sell for an average of 17% more, so you could recoup the cost of staging and then some.

Should I remove personal photos when selling house? ›

Some in the industry strongly advise their clients to remove all personal photos. After all, you want potential buyers to be able to visualize themselves living in the home and not be distracted by seeing personal photos of the current home owners' vacations, wedding photos, and family reunions.

How do professionals take real estate photos? ›

To prepare for a real estate shoot, make sure you follow these gear tips:
  1. Go for a DSLR Camera with a Wide Angle Lens. ...
  2. Use a Tripod. ...
  3. Invest in a Flash. ...
  4. Buy a Remote Trigger for Your Camera. ...
  5. Get a Drone for Aerial Images. ...
  6. Schedule the Shoot for Late Day. ...
  7. Do a Walk-Through Before Shooting. ...
  8. Create a Shot List.
25 Nov 2020

What should you not do when staging a house? ›

Staging Mistakes to Avoid When Selling Your Home
  1. Starting without a plan. ...
  2. Listing a home before it's ready. ...
  3. Not taking professional photos. ...
  4. Neglecting simple home improvements. ...
  5. Making major renovations. ...
  6. Not removing or replacing dated décor. ...
  7. Hanging pictures too high or too low. ...
  8. Using non-neutral colors.

Should you have pictures on the wall when selling a house? ›

“The first thing any home stager will tell you to do is remove personal pictures before you go on the market. Yes, it makes your home cleaner, sharper, less cluttered, and it also does two other important things for you. It allows the buyer to see themselves there, even if they don't look like you.

Do It Yourself Home Staging Tips? ›

DIY Home-Staging Tips Every Seller Can Use
  1. Keep It Fresh. This sounds obvious, but it's an important factor in home staging. ...
  2. Honor the Value of the Home. This is the time when that temporary dividing wall or oversized furniture needs to be reconsidered. ...
  3. Show the Possibilities. ...
  4. Add Some Personality. ...
  5. Remember: Happy Sells.
14 Jun 2022

Why do professionals use real estate photography? ›

How important are real estate photos? When taken by a professional photographer, real estate photos can significantly help real estate agents sell listings faster and for more money to a prospective buyer.

How many pictures can you put on Zillow? ›

We do not have a specific number that is preferred by consumers and the number of photos displayed is based on agent preference. That's significant. Interestingly, while the site allows up to 100 photos per listing, they're not able to say how many photos are actually effective at getting a buyer to act.

What should I put away when selling my house? ›

Here are nine items that you should consider putting in storage while selling your home.
  1. Family Photos. Buyers want to picture themselves in the house, so having your home adorned with family photos can make that difficult. ...
  2. Kitchen Appliances. ...
  3. Knick-Knacks. ...
  4. Toys. ...
  5. Pet Toys. ...
  6. Furniture. ...
  7. Extra Clothes. ...
  8. Exercise Equipment.
5 Apr 2018

What should I remove from home before selling? ›

Remove personal items such as toothbrushes, medications, shampoo, glasses, dirty laundry baskets, dirty dishes and so on. You can hide many of these items in pretty baskets or boxes with lids. You can even hide things in plastic bins that will easily slide under the bed.

Can you ask Zillow to remove pictures? ›

The single best way to remove photos of your home from real estate websites is to ask for this in your purchase offer. If you've already closed, and you want the photos removed, start by asking the listing agent. You can also remove photographs from Zillow yourself by creating an account and "claiming" the home.

Is real estate photography hard? ›

Real estate photography is a challenging but fun and potentially lucrative line of work. It can be a great side income, or a full-time career! It might seem simple at first – just take pictures of houses and rooms, and get paid!

What filter do real estate photographers use? ›

Polarizing Filter

Polarizers can be used to any photography type, whether you specialize in weddings, landscape, architectural, or real estate. They filter out polarized light which intensely reduce reflections. Polarizers are also used to enhance colors and can even increase contrast.

What skills do you need to be a real estate photographer? ›

Do You Have the Skills Required to be a Real Estate Photographer?
  • Passion. More than any skill, you need to be passionate about your business. ...
  • Top-quality equipment. ...
  • Post-processing skills. ...
  • Visual skills. ...
  • Innovation and creativity. ...
  • Social interaction. ...
  • Awareness of limitations.
5 Jan 2017

Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Pres. Carey Rath

Last Updated: 15/12/2023

Views: 5706

Rating: 4 / 5 (61 voted)

Reviews: 84% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Pres. Carey Rath

Birthday: 1997-03-06

Address: 14955 Ledner Trail, East Rodrickfort, NE 85127-8369

Phone: +18682428114917

Job: National Technology Representative

Hobby: Sand art, Drama, Web surfing, Cycling, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Leather crafting, Creative writing

Introduction: My name is Pres. Carey Rath, I am a faithful, funny, vast, joyous, lively, brave, glamorous person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.